www.diabeticretinopathy.org.uk

Anti-VEGF drugs: some research

 

David Kinshuck

Diabetic retinopathy generally

Long-term effects of ranibizumab on diabetic retinopathy severity and progression.
Arch Ophthalmol. 2012 Sep 1;130(9):1145-52. doi: 10.1001/archophthalmol.2012.1043.
Ip MS, Domalpally A, Hopkins JJ, Wong P, Ehrlich JS.

Long-term Effects of Ranibizumab on Diabetic Retinopathy Severity and Progression Michael S. Ip, MD; Amitha Domalpally, MD; J. Jill Hopkins, MD; Pamela Wong, MPH; Jason S. Ehrlich, MD, PhD
Arch Ophthalmol. 2012;130(9):1145-1152. doi:10.1001/archophthalmol.2012.1043

Intravitreal Bevacizumab (Avastin) for Diabetic Retinopathy: The 2010 GLADAOF Lecture.
Arevalo JF, Sanchez JG, Lasave AF, Wu L, Maia M, Bonafonte S, Brito M, Alezzandrini AA, Restrepo N, Berrocal MH, Saravia M, Farah ME, Fromow-Guerra J, Morales-Canton V.
J Ophthalmol. 2011;2011:584238. Epub 2011 Mar 30.
Free full text

In proliferative diabetic retinopathy

A review of anti-VEGF agents for proliferative diabetic retinopathy
P Osaadon, J Fagan,, T Lifshitz,1 and J Levy,
Eye (2014) 28, 510–520;

Intravitreal Bevacizumab (Avastin) and Panretinal Photocoagulation in the Treatment of High-Risk Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy.
J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2013 Mar 15. [Epub ahead of print]
Yang CS, Hung KC, Huang YM, Hsu WM.

Intravitreal Bevacizumab in the Treatment of Diabetic Ocular Neovascularization
Ababneh, Osama H. MD; Yousef, Yacoub A. MD; Gharaibeh, Almutez M. MD; Abu Ameerh, Mohammed A. MD; Abu-Yaghi, Nakhleh E. MD; Al Bdour, Muawyah D. MD
Retina: April 2013 - Volume 33 - Issue 4 - p 748–755doi: 10.1097/IAE.0b013e3182721153

The relation between bevacizumab injection and the formation of subretinal fibrosis in diabetic patients with panretinal photocoagulation.
Batman C, Ozdamar Y.
Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging. 2010 Mar-Apr;41(2):190-5. doi: 10.3928/15428877-20100303-06.

THE RESULTS OF INTRAVITREAL BEVACIZUMAB INJECTIONS FOR PERSISTENT NEOVASCULARIZATIONS IN PROLIFERATIVE DIABETIC RETINOPATHY AFTER PHOTOCOAGULATION THERAPY.
Erdol H, Turk A, Akyol N, Imamoglu HI.
Retina. 2010 Mar 10. [Epub ahead of print]  see

A review of clinical trials of anti-VEGF agents for diabetic retinopathy.
Nicholson BP, Schachat AP
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2010 Feb 20. [Epub ahead of print]

Injection of intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) as a preoperative adjunct before vitrectomy surgery in the treatment of severe proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR).
Rizzo S, Genovesi-Ebert F, Di Bartolo E, Vento A, Miniaci S, Williams G.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2008 Feb 20;

Arevalo JF, Maia M, Flynn HW Jr, Saravia M, Avery RL, Wu L, Eid Farah M, Pieramici DJ, Berrocal MH, Sanchez JG.
Tractional retinal detachment following intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) in patients with severe proliferative diabetic retinopathy.
Br J Ophthalmol. 2008 Feb;92(2):213-6. Epub 2007 Oct 26.

Ishikawa K, Honda S, Tsukahara Y, Negi A.
Preferable use of intravitreal bevacizumab as a pretreatment of vitrectomy for severe proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

Tonello M, Costa RA, Almeida FP, Barbosa JC, Scott IU, Jorge R.
Panretinal photocoagulation versus PRP plus intravitreal bevacizumab for high-risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy (IBeHi study).
Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2007 Nov 7;

Jorge R, Costa RA, Calucci D, Cintra LP, Scott IU.
Intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) for persistent new vessels in diabetic retinopathy (IBEPE study).
Retina. 2006 Nov-Dec;26(9):1006-13.

Arevalo JF, Wu L, Sanchez JG, Maia M, Saravia MJ, Fernandez CF, Evans T.
Intravitreal bevacizumab (avastin) for proliferative diabetic retinopathy: 6-months follow-up.
Eye. 2007 Sep 21; [Epub ahead of print]

Avery RL, Pearlman J, Pieramici DJ, Rabena MD, Castellarin AA, Nasir MA, Giust MJ, Wendel R, Patel A.
Intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) in the treatment of proliferative diabetic retinopathy.
Ophthalmology. 2006 Oct;113(10):1695.e1-15.

Minnella AM, Savastano CM, Ziccardi L, Scupola A, Sasso P, Falsini B, Balestrazzi E.
Intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin((R))) in proliferative diabetic retinopathy.
Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2007 Nov 7; [Epub ahead of print]

Mirshahi A, Roohipoor R, Lashay A, Mohammadi SF, Abdoallahi A, Faghihi H
Bevacizumab-augmented retinal laser photocoagulation in proliferative diabetic retinopathy: A randomized double-masked clinical trial
Eur J Ophthalmol. 2008 Mar-Apr;18(2):263-9.Links

Kleinmann G, Hauser D, Schechtman E, Landa G, Bukelman A, Pollack A.
Vitreous hemorrhage in diabetic eyes previously treated with panretinal photocoagulation.
Int Ophthalmol. 2008 Feb;28(1):29-34. Epub 2007 Jul 10.

Bandello F, Brancato R, Menchini U, Virgili G, Lanzetta P, Ferrari E, Incorvaia C.
Light panretinal photocoagulation (LPRP) versus classic panretinal photocoagulation (CPRP) in proliferative diabetic retinopathy.
Semin Ophthalmol. 2001 Mar;16(1):12-8.

Kotoula MG, Koukoulis GN, Zintzaras E, Karabatsas CH, Chatzoulis DZ.
Metabolic control of diabetes is associated with an improved response of diabetic retinopathy to panretinal photocoagulation.
Diabetes Care. 2005 Oct;28(10):2454-7.

Kleinmann G, Hauser D, Schechtman E, Landa G, Bukelman A, Pollack A.
Vitreous hemorrhage in diabetic eyes previously treated with panretinal photocoagulation.
Int Ophthalmol. 2008 Feb;28(1):29-34. Epub 2007 Jul 10.

Roh MI, Byeon SH, Kwon OW
Intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) therapy for clinically sigificant diabetic macular edema.
Retina. 2008 Aug 25. [Epub ahead of print]

Chung EJ, Roh MI, Kwon OW, Koh HJ.
Effects of macular ischemia on the outcome of intravitreal bevacizumab therapy for diabetic macular edema.
Retina. 2008 Jul-Aug;28(7):957-63.  

Beutel J, Peters S, Lüke M, Aisenbrey S, Szurman P, Spitzer MS, Yoeruek E; the Bevacizumab Study Group, Grisanti S
Bevacizumab as adjuvant for neovascular glaucoma.
Acta Ophthalmol. 2008 Sep 20. [Epub ahead of print

 

Tractional retinal detachment following intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) in patients with severe proliferative diabetic retinopathy
Arevalo JF, Maia M, Flynn HW Jr, Saavia M, Avery RL, Wu L, Eid Farah M, Pieramici DJ, Berrocal MH, Sanchez JG.
Br J Ophthalmol. 2008 Feb;92(2):213-6. Epub 2007 Oct 26 see

Minnella AM, Savastano CM, Ziccardi L, Scupola A, Falsini B, Balestrazzi E.
E Intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) in proliferative diabetic retinopathy
Acta Ophthalmol. 2008 Sep;86(6):683-7.

Moradian S, Ahmadieh H, Malihi M, Soheilian M, Dehghan MH, Azarmina M
Intravitreal bevacizumab in active progressive proliferative diabetic retinopathy
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2008 Aug 12. [Epub ahead of print]

Repeated intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin(®) ) treatment of persistent new vessels in proliferative diabetic retinopathy after complete panretinal photocoagulation.
Acta Ophthalmol. 2011 Feb;89(1):76-81. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-3768.2009.01622.x Schmidinger G, Maar N, Bolz M, Scholda C, Schmidt-Erfurth U.

Conclusion: Intravitreal bevacizumab led to a significant reduction of retinal new vessels for a mean period of 2.9 months. A 3-monthly retreatment regime might be a valid method to control retinal new vessels in diabetic patients with persistent new vessels.

New approaches for the treatment of diabetic macular oedema: recommendations by an expert panel
F Bandello, J Cunha-Vaz, N V Chong, G E Lang, P Massin, P Mitchell, M Porta, C Prünte, R Schlingemann and U Schmidt-Erfurth
Eye (2012) 26, 485–493; doi:10.1038/eye.2011.337; published online 13 January 2012

Avastin, diabetic retinopathy and cataract Surgery

Role of combined cataract surgery and intravitreal bevacizumab injection in preventing progression of diabetic retinopathy Prospective randomized study. Cheema RA, Al-Mubarak MM, Amin YM, Cheema MA.
J Cataract Refract Surg. 2009 Jan;35(1):18-25

Avastin as an adjunct to vitrectomy in the management of severe proliferative diabetic retinopathy: a prospective case series.
Yeoh J, Williams C, Allen P, Buttery R, Chiu D, Clark B, Essex R, McCombe M, Qureshi S, Campbell WG.
Clin Experiment Ophthalmol. 2008 Jul;36(5):449-54.

Repeated intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin(R)) treatment of persistent new vessels in proliferative diabetic retinopathy after complete panretinal photocoagulation.
Schmidinger G, Maar N, Bolz M, Scholda C, Schmidt-Erfurth U.
Acta Ophthalmol. 2009 Sep 11. [Epub ahead of print]

Avastin (and other anti-VEGF) and diabetic macular oedema

Long-term outcomes of ranibizumab therapy for diabetic macular edema: the 36-month results from two phase III trials: RISE and RIDE.
Brown DM, Nguyen QD, Marcus DM, Boyer DS, Patel S, Feiner L, Schlottmann PG, Rundle AC, Zhang J, Rubio RG, Adamis AP, Ehrlich JS, Hopkins JJ; RIDE and RISE Research Group.
Ophthalmology. 2013 Oct;120(10):2013-22. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2013.02.034. Epub 2013 May 22.
Long term treatment helpful

Injection frequency and response to bevacizumab monotherapy for diabetic macular oedema (BOLT Report 5).
Sivaprasad S, Crosby-Nwaobi R, Heng LZ, Peto T, Michaelides M, Hykin P.
Br J Ophthalmol. 2013 Sep;97(9):1177-80. doi: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2013-303168. Epub 2013 Jul 3.

RESULTS:

Eyes with better baseline visual acuity less frequently had persistent oedema and had fewer recurrences in the second year. All eyes with baseline subretinal detachment showed persistent macular oedema at 24 months. None of the other factors assessed influenced injection frequency or response in the first or second year.

CONCLUSIONS:

Good long-term response is predicted by resolution of macular oedema by 4 months. However, approximately 20% of patients with persistent oedema at 12 months achieved a dry macula and 50% gained more than 15 letters at 24 months with sustained treatment, suggesting that oedema at 4 or 12 months should not be used as a stopping criterion for treatment.

Effect of a single intravitreal bevacizumab injection on different optical coherence tomographic patterns of diabetic macular oedema
A Koytak, M Altinisik, E Sogutlu Sari, O Artunay, J C Umurhan Akkan and K Tuncer
Eye 27: 716-721; advance online publication, March 8, 2013; doi:10.1038/eye.2013.17

Visual Outcome After Intravitreal Bevacizumab Depends on the Optical Coherence Tomographic Patterns of Patients With Diffuse Diabetic Macular Edema
Shimura, Masahiko MD, PhD*; Yasuda, Kanako MD, PhD*; Yasuda, Masayuki MD†; Nakazawa, Toru MD, PhD† Retina April 2013 - Volume 33 - Issue 4 - p 740–747, doi: 10.1097/IAE.0b013e31826b6763

LONG-TERM SAFETY AND EFFICACY OUTCOME OF RANIBIZUMAB 0.5 MG IN PATIENTS WITH VISUAL IMPAIRMENT DUE TO DIABETIC MACULAR EDEMA: THE RESTORE EXTENSION STUDY
C. Bailey
Bristol Eye Hospital, Bristol, United Kingdom EASDEC 2012

Factors Associated With Changes in Visual Acuity and Central Subfield Thickness at 1 Year After Treatment for Diabetic Macular Edema With Ranibizumab
Susan B. Bressler, MD; Haijing Qin, MS; Roy W. Beck, MD, PhD; Kakarla V. Chalam, MD; Judy E. Kim, MD; Michele Melia, ScM; John A. Wells, MD; for the Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network
Arch Ophthalmol. 2012;130(9):1153-1161. doi:10.1001/archophthalmol.2012.1107

The relative clinical effectiveness of ranibizumab and bevacizumab in diabetic macular oedema: an indirect comparison in a systematic review
BMJ 2012;345doi: 10.1136/bmj.e5182(Published 13 August 2012)
John A Ford, Andrew Elders, Deepson Shyangdan, Pamela Royle, Norman Waugh,

A 2-Year Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial of Intravitreal Bevacizumab or Laser Therapy (BOLT) in the Management of Diabetic Macular Edema 24-Month Data: Report 3
Ranjan Rajendram, Samantha Fraser-Bell, Andrew Kaines, Michel Michaelides, Robin D. Hamilton, Simona Degli Esposti, Tunde Peto, Catherine Egan, Catey Bunce,; Richard David Leslie, Philip G. Hykin,
Arch Ophthalmol. 2012;130(8):972-979. doi:10.1001/archophthalmol.2012.393

Vision, Retinal Thickness, and Foveal Avascular Zone Size After Intravitreal Bevacizumab for Diabetic Macular Edema.
Erol N, Gursoy H, Kimyon S, Topbas S, Colak E.
Adv Ther. 2012 Mar 7. [Epub ahead of print]

New approaches for the treatment of diabetic macular oedema: recommendations by an expert panel
F Bandello, J Cunha-Va2, N V Chong, G E Lang, P Massin, P Mitchel6, M Porta, C Prünte, R Schlingemann and U Schmidt-Erfurth
Eye (2012) 26, 485–493; doi:10.1038/eye.2011.337; published online 13 January 2012

Long-term Effects of Ranibizumab on Diabetic Retinopathy Severity and Progression
Michael S. Ip, MD; Amitha Domalpally, MD; J. Jill Hopkins, MD; Pamela Wong, MPH; Jason S. Ehrlich, MD, PhD   ONLINE FIRST Arch Ophthalmol. 2012;():1-8. doi:10.1001/archophthalmol.2012.1043

Vision, Retinal Thickness, and Foveal Avascular Zone Size After Intravitreal Bevacizumab for Diabetic Macular Edema.
Erol N, Gursoy H, Kimyon S, Topbas S, Colak E.
Adv Ther. 2012 Mar 7. [Epub ahead of print]

DA VINCI
One-Year Outcomes of the DA VINCI Study of VEGF Trap-Eye in Eyes with Diabetic Macular Edema.

Do DV, Nguyen QD, Boyer D, Schmidt-Erfurth U, Brown DM, Vitti R, Berliner AJ, Gao B, Zeitz O, Ruckert R, Schmelter T, Sandbrink R, Heier JS; DAVINCI Study Group.
Ophthalmology. 2012 Apr 24. [Epub ahead of print]

Two-Year Results of A Randomized Trial of Intravitreal Bevacizumab Alone or Combined With Triamcinolone Versus Laser in Diabetic Macular Edema
Soheilian, Masoud MD*,†; Garfami, Kiumars Heidari MD, FRCS*; Ramezani, Alireza MD*,†,‡; Yaseri, Mehdi PhD*; Peyman, Gholam A. MD§
Retina: February 2012 - Volume 32 - Issue 2 - p 314–321

Intravitreal Bevacizumab with or without triamcinolone for refractory diabetic macular oedema.
Synek S, Veselý P.Coll Antropol.
2011 Sep;35(3):841-5.

Intravitreal bevacizumab (avastin) injection alone or combined with triamcinolone versus macular photocoagulation as primary treatment of diabetic macular edema. Soheilian M, Ramezani A, Bijanzadeh B, Yaseri M, Ahmadieh H, Dehghan MH, Azarmina M, Moradian S, Tabatabaei H, Peyman GA.
Retina. 2007 Nov-Dec;27(9):1187-95.

Intravitreal Bevacizumab for Diabetic Macular Edema Associated With Severe Capillary Loss: One-Year Results of a Pilot Study.
Bonini-Filho M, Costa RA, Calucci D, Jorge R, Melo LA Jr, Scott IU.
Am J Ophthalmol. 2009 Mar 25. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 19327746 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] Related Articles

Enlargement of the Foveal Avascular Zone in Diabetic Retinopathy after Adjunctive Intravitreal Bevacizumab (Avastin) with Pars Plana Vitrectomy.
Jun Lee S, Jun Koh H.
J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Mar 14. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 19284326 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] Related Articles

Long-term effect of intravitreal bevacizumab (avastin) in patients with chronic diffuse diabetic macular edema.
Kook D, Wolf A, Kreutzer T, Neubauer A, Strauss R, Ulbig M, Kampik A, Haritoglou C.
Retina. 2008 Oct;28(8):1053-60.

Primary Intravitreal Bevacizumab for Diffuse Diabetic Macular Edema The Pan-American Collaborative Retina Study Group at 24 Months.
Arevalo JF, Sanchez JG, Wu L, Maia M, Alezzandrini AA, Brito M, Bonafonte S, Lujan S, Diaz-Llopis M, Restrepo N, Rodríguez FJ, Udaondo-Mirete P; Pan-American Collaborative Retina Study Group (PACORES).
Ophthalmology. 2009 Jun 20. [Epub ahead of print]

No previous angiography, mean vision improvement 0.3 log mar units (0.88   improved to 0.57 logmar units), 115 patients, 139 eyes, about 6 injections over 2 years. No difference in response (dose 1.25 vs 2.5). Central macular thickess started off at 460 μs, improved to 290 at end of 2 years.

BOLT 3
A 2-Year Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial of Intravitreal Bevacizumab or Laser Therapy (BOLT) in the Management of Diabetic Macular Edema: 24-Month Data: Report 3.
Rajendram R, Fraser-Bell S, Kaines A, Michaelides M, Hamilton RD, Esposti SD, Peto T, Egan C, Bunce C, Leslie RD, Hykin PG.
Arch Ophthalmol. 2012 Apr 9. [Epub ahead of print]

Intravitreal bevacizumab vs intravitreal triamcinolone combined with macular laser grid for diffuse diabetic macular oedema
R Forte, G L Cennamo, M Finelli, E Farese, G D'Amico, G Nicoletti, G de Crecchioand G Cennamo
Eye (2010) 24, 1325–1330; doi:10.1038/eye.2010.23; published online 19 March 2010
Triamcinolone is not effective, Avastin is.

Intravitreal bevacizumab for the treatment of refractory diabetic macular edema.
Mehta S, Blinder KJ, Shah GK, Kymes SM, Schlief SL, Grand MG.
Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging.
2010 May-Jun;41(3):323-9. doi: 10.3928/15428877-20100430-05.
Avastin may help.

Comparison of Intravitreal Bevacizumab and Ranibizumab Treatment for Diabetic Macular Edema
Ozturk BT, Kerimoglu H, Bozkurt B, Okudan S
J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2011 Jun 1. [Epub ahead of print].
"Bevacizumab and ranibizumab are both effective antivascular endothelial growth factor drugs preferred in the treatment of DME. Our comparison of both therapies on the same patients suggested that the effect on BCVA was not statistically different, but ranibizumab provided more decrease in CSMT"

Intravitreal triamcinolone and bevacizumab as adjunctive treatments to panretinal photocoagulation in diabetic retinopathy.
Cho WB, Moon JW, Kim HC.  Br J Ophthalmol. 2010 Jul;94(7):858-63.

Initial Macular Thickness and Response To Treatment in Diabetic Macular Edema Soheilian, M, Ramezani, A, Yaseri, M, Mirdehghan, S, Obudi, A, Bijanzadeh, B. Retina 2011 31: pp 1564-1573
'Initial CMT may be an important factor in decision making. Regardless of initial CMT, IVB caused a better visual outcome only at 6 weeks. With longer follow-up, however, IVB was superior to IVB/IVT and macular laser photocoagulation only in the eyes with initial CMT of ≥350 μm. Concerning CMT reduction, this superiority of IVB in the eyes with initial CMT of ≥350 μm was not observed beyond 12 weeks.

The RESTORE study: ranibizumab monotherapy or combined with laser versus laser monotherapy for diabetic macular edema.
Mitchell P, Bandello F, Schmidt-Erfurth U, Lang GE, Massin P, Schlingemann RO, Sutter F, Simader C, Burian G, Gerstner O, Weichselberger A;
RESTORE study group
Ophthalmology. 2011 Apr;118(4):615-25.

Resolve Study
Safety and efficacy of ranibizumab in diabetic macular edema: a 12-month, randomized, controlled, double-masked, multicenter phase II study.
Massin P, Bandello F, Garweg JG, Hansen LL, Harding SP, Larsen M, Mitchell P, Sharp D, Wolf-Schnurrbusch UE, Gekkieva M, Weichselberger A, Wolf S.
Diabetes Care. 2010 Nov;33(11):2399-405. (lucentis)

Bolt
A prospective randomized trial of intravitreal bevacizumab or laser therapy in the management of diabetic macular edema (BOLT study) 12-month data: report 2.
Michaelides M, Kaines A, Hamilton RD, Fraser-Bell S, Rajendram R, Quhill F, Boos CJ, Xing W, Egan C, Peto T, Bunce C, Leslie RD, Hykin PG.
Ophthalmology. 2010 Jun;117(6):1078-1086.e2. Epub 2010 Apr 22.

Effect of intravitreal bevacizumab based on optical coherence tomography patterns of diabetic macular edema.
Kim M, Lee P, Kim Y, Yu SY, Kwak HW
Ophthalmologica. 2011;226(3):138-44. Epub 2011 Aug 3

Avastin and pseudophakic diabetic macular oedema

Prophylactic intravitreal bevacizumab for diabetic macular edema (thickening) after cataract surgery: prospective randomized study.
Fard MA, Yazdanei Abyane A, Malihi M.
Eur J Ophthalmol. 2011 May-Jun;21(3):276-81. doi: 10.5301/EJO.2010.1405.

Role of combined cataract surgery and intravitreal bevacizumab injection in preventing progression of diabetic retinopathy: prospective randomized study.
Cheema RA, Al-Mubarak MM, Amin YM, Cheema MA.
J Cataract Refract Surg. 2009 Jan;35(1):18-25.

Phacoemulsification with intravitreal bevacizumab injection in diabetic patients with macular edema and cataract.
Akinci A, Batman C, Ozkilic E, Altinsoy A.
Retina. 2009 Nov-Dec;29(10):1432-5.

Analysis of the effect of intravitreal bevacizumab injection on diabetic macular edema after cataract surgery.
Takamura Y, Kubo E, Akagi Y.
Ophthalmology. 2009 Jun;116(6):1151-7. Epub 2009 Apr 19.

Avastin and pseudophakic none-diabetic macular oedema

Short-term safety and efficacy of intravitreal bevacizumab for pseudophakic cystoid macular edema.
Barone A, Russo V, Prascina F, Delle Noci N.
Retina. 2009 Jan;29(1):33-7.

Efficacy of intravitreal bevacizumab in treating postoperative pseudophakic cystoid macular edema.
Spitzer MS, Ziemssen F, Yoeruek E, Petermeier K, Aisenbrey S, Szurman P.
J Cataract Refract Surg. 2008 Jan;34(1):70-5.

Primary intravitreal bevacizumab for the management of pseudophakic cystoid macular edema: pilot study of the Pan-American Collaborative Retina Study Group.
Arevalo JF, Garcia-Amaris RA, Roca JA, Sanchez JG, Wu L, Berrocal MH, Maia M; Pan-American Collaborative Retina Study Group. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2007 Dec;33(12):2098-105.

Avastin/Macugen and vitrectomy

Bevacizumab as an adjunct to vitreoretinal surgery for diabetic retinopathy in East Africa
G Guthrie1, A B Hall, K Dhalla, R M Davis and D H Steel
Eye (2013) 27, 1263–1268; doi:10.1038/eye.2013.182; published online 16 August 2013

Conclusions IVB reduces surgical complications, the use of silicon oil, and the need for further retinal surgery. The NNT to restore useful vision (≥3/60) to a blind eye were significantly lower in the IVB group. Vitreoretinal surgery for the complications of PDR is effective in an East African context, and IVB should be considered a valuable adjunct.

Influence of Preoperative Intravitreal Bevacizumab on Visual Function in Eyes with Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy.
Ushida H, Kachi S, Asami T, Ishikawa K, Kondo M, Terasaki H.
Ophthalmic Res. 2012 Sep 29;49(1):30-36. [Epub ahead of print]

Six-month visual outcome after pars plana vitrectomy in proliferative diabetic retinopathy with or without a single preoperative injection of intravitreal bevacizumab.
Gupta A, Bansal R, Gupta V, Dogra MR
Int Ophthalmol. 2012 Apr;32(2):135-44. Epub 2012 Mar 27.

Intravitreal injection of bevacizumab before vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy.
Modarres M, Nazari H, Falavarjani KG, Naseripour M, Hashemi M, Parvaresh MM.
Eur J Ophthalmol. 2009 Sep-Oct;19(5):848-52.

Use of pegaptanib for recurrent and non-clearing vitreous haemorrhage in proliferative diabetic retinopathy
D Hornan, N Edmeades, R Krishnan, J Khan and J Lochhead
Eye 24: 1315-1319; advance online publication, March 12, 2010; doi:10.1038/eye.2010.14

A systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical outcomes of vitrectomy with or without intravitreal bevacizumab pretreatment for severe diabetic retinopathy.
Br J Ophthalmol. 2011 Jan 27.[Epub ahead of print].
Zhao LQ, Zhu H, Zhao PQ, Hu YQ
"Postoperative results indicated that reabsorption time of blood was significantly shorter (p=0.04), incidence of recurrent VH was almost significantly less (p=0.05), and final best-corrected visual acuity was significantly better (p=0.003) in the IVB group than in the control group. Other complications, including final retinal detachment, and reoperation, were statistically insignificant. Conclusion IVB pretreatment in vitrectomy can achieve excellent clinical outcomes for severe diabetic retinopathy. It potentially facilitates surgeons' manoeuvres and reduces intra- and postoperative complications."

Bevacizumab (Avastin) as an Adjunct to Vitrectomy in the Management of Severe Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy: A Prospective Case Series
Abdelhakim MA, Macky TA, Mansour KA, Mortada HA.
Ophthalmic Res. 2010 Aug 11;45(1):23-30. [Epub ahead of print].

Radiation Retinopathy

Endothelial Growth Factor Bevacizumab for Radiation Optic Neuropathy: Secondary to Plaque Radiotherapy.Finger PT, Chin KJ   Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011 Jan 27. [Epub ahead of print]

CONCLUSIONS: Intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor bevacizumab was tolerated and generally associated with improved vision, reduced papillary hemorrhage, and resolution of optic disc edema. Persistent optic disc neovascularization and fluorescein angiographic leakage were invariably noted. The results of the present study support additional evaluation of antivascular endothelial growth factor medications as treatment of RON.